新东方网>主站中学>中考>各科备考>英语>阅读理解>正文

新注册手机发发验证送彩金课外拓展阅读:如何认识普通感冒病毒

来源:新东方网整理

作者:

  Scientists think they have found a way to stop the common cold and closely related viruses which can cause paralysis.

  科学家们认为他们已经找到了一种方法来治疗普通感冒以及与其密切相关的病毒,这些病毒可能导致瘫痪。

  Instead of trying to attack them directly, the researchers targeted an essential protein insideour cells which the viruses need to replicate.

  研究人员没有试图直接攻击感冒病毒,而是将研究目标对准了病毒复制所需的细胞内的一种基本蛋白质。

  The approach gave "complete protection" in experiments on mice and human lung cells.

  该方法在针对小鼠和人类肺细胞的实验中提供了“完全的保护”。

  However, the US-based researchers are not ready for trials in people.

  不过,美国的研究人员还没有准备好进行人体试验。

  Tackling the common cold has been a massive problem in medicine.

  治疗普通感冒一直是医学界的一大难题。

  Most colds are caused by rhinoviruses, but there are around 160 different types and theymutate so easily they rapidly become resistant to drugs, or learn to hide from the immunesystem.

  大多数感冒由鼻病毒引起,但是大约有160种不同的病毒,它们很容易变异,并且会迅速产生抗药性,或者学会躲避免疫系统。

  This has led to the idea of "host-directed therapy" - essentially making our bodiesinhospitable for the cold viruses.

  这引发了“宿主导向疗法”的想法,也就是从本质上使人的身体不适合感冒病毒存活。

  An individual virus does not have everything it needs to replicate. Instead, it is dependenton infecting another cell and stealing some of the parts inside.

  单个病毒并不具备复制所需的一切。相反,它依赖于感染另一个细胞并从中获取部分物质。

  It is why scientists still argue whether viruses are truly alive.

  因此,科学家们仍然在争论病毒是否真的是活的。

  A team at Stanford University and the University of California, San Francisco, found one of thecomponents which the viruses were dependent upon.

  斯坦福大学和加州大学旧金山分校的一个研究小组发现了病毒所依赖的一种成分。

  Scientists started with human cells and then used gene-editing to turn off instructions insideour DNA one-by-one.

  科学家从人类细胞开始,之后用基因编辑一个接一个地关闭人类DNA中的指令。

  These modified cells were then exposed to a range of enteroviruses - this includes therhinoviruses which cause the common cold, and more dangerous viruses that are closelyrelated to polio and can cause paralysis.

  这些经过编辑的细胞随后暴露在多种肠道病毒中——包括导致普通感冒的鼻病毒,以及与脊髓灰质炎密切相关、可能导致瘫痪的更危险的病毒。

  All the viruses were unable to replicate inside cells which had the instructions for a protein(called methyltransferase SETD3) switched off.

  所有的病毒都无法在细胞内复制,因为这些细胞内的一种蛋白质(甲基转移酶SETD3)的指令已经关闭。

  The scientists then created genetically modified mice which were completely unable toproduce that protein.

  然后,科学家们创造了完全不能产生这种蛋白质的转基因老鼠。

  "Lacking that gene protected the mice completely from viral infection," associate professorJan Carette, from Stanford, told the BBC.

  斯坦福大学的副教授简·凯瑞特告诉英国广播公司说:“缺乏这种基因使老鼠完全免受病毒感染。”

  "These mice would always die [without the mutation], but they survived and we saw a verystrong reduction in viral replication and very strong protection."

  “如果没有突变,这些小鼠总是会死亡,但它们存活了下来。我们看到病毒复制大幅减少,保护作用非常强。”

  The protein these viruses were dependent upon normally has a role in the intricate"scaffolding" which organises the inside of the body's cells, called the cytoskeleton.

  这些病毒所依赖的蛋白质通常在复杂的“支架”中发挥作用,“支架”负责组织体内的细胞,被称为细胞骨架。

  The findings, published in the journal Nature Microbiology, showed the genetically modifiedmice were healthy, despite lacking the protein for their whole lives.

  这项研究结果发表在《自然微生物学》期刊上。结果显示,尽管转基因小鼠终生缺乏这种蛋白质,但它们是健康的。

  The plan is not to produce genetically modified humans, but to find a drug which cantemporarily suppress the protein, and provide protection.

  科学家的目的并不是打造转基因人类,而是寻找一种能暂时抑制这种蛋白质并提供保护的药物。

  "We have identified a fantastic target that all enteroviruses and rhinoviruses require anddepend on. Take that away and the virus really has no chance," said Prof Carette.

  “我们已经确定了所有肠病毒和鼻病毒都需要和依赖的一个极好的靶点。如果把它清除掉,病毒就没有机会兴风作浪了,”凯瑞特教授说。

  He added: "This is a really good first step - the second step is to have a chemical that mimicsthis genetic deletion.

  他补充说:“这是非常好的第一步,第二步是找到可以模仿这种基因缺失的化学物质。”

  "I think development can go relatively quickly."

  “我认为进展相对会比较快。”

  Exactly what role the protein plays in the viral replication is still uncertain, and will requirefurther research.

  这种蛋白质在病毒复制中究竟起什么作用尚不清楚,还需进一步研究。

  For most people the common cold is more of an inconvenience than a threat to their health, but in asthmatics it can make their symptoms much worse and some of the enteroviruses cancauses paralysis if they spread to the brain.

  对大多数人来说,普通感冒对健康与其说是一种威胁,不如说是一种不便,但对哮喘患者来说,感冒会加剧症状,而一些肠道病毒如果传播到大脑,可能会导致瘫痪。

  Prof Jonathan Ball, a virologist at the University of Nottingham, who was not involved in thework, said the study was "neat" but scientists would need to be certain the approach wassafe.

  诺丁汉大学病毒学家乔纳森·鲍尔教授没有参与这项研究,他表示,这项研究“很简洁”,但科学家需要确定这种方法是安全的。

  "There is increasing interest in developing treatments that target these host proteins, becauseit can potentially overcome virus mutation - one of the major barriers to developingeffective broadly active antivirals.

  “人们对研发针对这些宿主蛋白质的治疗方法越来越感兴趣,因为它可能克服病毒突变——这是研发有效的广谱抗病毒药物的主要障碍之一。

  "But of course, viruses are very adaptable and it is conceivable that even a host-targetingtreatment might not keep them at bay for long."

  “当然,病毒适应性很强,可以想象,即使是针对宿主的治疗也可能无法长期控制它们。”

  相关推荐:

  新注册手机发发验证送彩金词汇积累之30个疫情相关高频词整理

  新冠状病毒肺炎新注册手机发发验证送彩金作文考点预测及写作素材整理

  新注册手机发发验证送彩金考点复习之新冠疫情语法填空题及答案

  中考科普英语词汇大全:相关医学名词整理

  中考科普英语词汇大全:相关医疗器具名称表达整理

  中考科普英语词汇大全:相关病理症状表达整理

  中考科普英语词汇大全:机构/职业群体和场所名称整理

  中考科普英语大全:相关政策举措词汇表达整理

  中考科普英语大全:相关传染防控词汇表达整理

  中考科普英语词汇大全:相关疫病名称整理

  中考科普英语:"新型冠状病毒肺炎“是如何命名的?

  新注册手机发发验证送彩金作文必备:七类180个疫情高频英语词汇大全

  中学生英语词汇拓展:一篇文章搞定新冠肺炎相关英文表达

  “新型冠状病毒肺炎”用英语怎么说?(含相关症状及拓展词汇)

(责任编辑:兰香子)

文章更新时间:2020-03-10

资料下载

  • 中学生英语必备3500词下载

    3342次下载 点击下载
  • 新注册手机发发验证送彩金词汇表下载

    2621次下载 点击下载
  • 人教版七年级下各科教材PDF下载版

    4734次下载 点击下载
  • 人教版八年级下各科教材PDF下载版

    1854次下载 点击下载
  • 人教版九年级下各科教材PDF下载版

    1391次下载 点击下载
  • 2020海淀期末试题下载

    1391次下载 点击下载
名称名称
300次下载

微信扫码关注"新东方网"服务号

回复""立刻获取!

中考头条

  • 各地中考
  • 专家指导
  • 中考家长

      中小学全科教育初中课程

      班级名称 上课地点 上课时间 费用 查看详情

      焦点推荐

      全国中考

      华北:北京中考   天津中考   河北中考   山西中考   内蒙古中考
      华东:山东中考   江苏中考   安徽中考   浙江中考   福建中考   上海中考
      华中:湖北中考   湖南中考   河南中考   江西中考
      华南:广东中考   广西中考   海南中考
      东北:辽宁中考   吉林中考   黑龙江中考
      西南:四川中考   云南中考   贵州中考   西藏中考   重庆中考
      西北:宁夏中考   新疆中考   青海中考    陕西中考   甘肃中考

      版权及免责声明

      凡本网注明"稿件来源:新东方"的所有文字、图片和音视频稿件,版权均属新东方教育科技集团(含本网和新东方网) 所有,任何媒体、网站或个人未经本网协议授权不得转载、链接、转贴或以其他任何方式复制、发表。已经本网协议授权的媒体、网站,在下载使用时必须注明"稿件来源:新东方",违者本网将依法追究法律责任。

      本网未注明"稿件来源:新东方"的文/图等稿件均为转载稿,本网转载仅基于传递更多信息之目的,并不意味着赞同转载稿的观点或证实其内容的真实性。如其他媒体、网站或个人从本网下载使用,必须保留本网注明的"稿件来源",并自负版权等法律责任。如擅自篡改为"稿件来源:新东方",本网将依法追究法律责任。

      如本网转载稿涉及版权等问题,请作者见稿后在两周内速来电与新东方网联系,电话:010-60908555。

      猜你喜欢

      博聚网